Operational definition

The operational definition of an acid and a base is in terms of their observable or measurable properties.

Properties

Acids

Bases

Taste

Taste sour

Taste bitter

Feels

 Like water

Slippery

Litmus

Turns blue litmus red

Turns red litmus blue

Electrical conductivity

Good electrolytes

Good electrolytes

Chemical reactivity

Neutralize bases producing salts

Neutralize acids producing salts

React with active metals producing hydrogen gas

React with fats producing soap

Include

Non-metallic oxides and hydroxides

Metallic oxides & hydroxides and ammonia.

Common examples of acids and bases

Sulfuric acid H2SO4, nitric acid HNO3, hydrochloric acid HCl and acetic acid CH3COOH which is found in vinegar

Potassium hydroxide KOH, sodium oxide NaO, sodium hydroxide NaOH, ammonia NH3, magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2, calcium oxide CaO, calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2

An electrolyte is a solution that conducts an electric current. Soluble acids and alkalis (soluble bases) produce large amounts of ions (charged particles) in solutions and are good electrolytes. Eg. HCl → H+(aq) + Cl-(aq)

 

Molar Mass
 

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